The first book, Kiowa Ethnogeography, examines the linguistic basis, geographical knowledge, and cultural associations of over place names in Kiowa and English from earliest recorded sources to the present. Combining detailed linguistic and cartographic information ranging from the northern Plains into Mexico, this work chronicles the evolution of Kiowa culture while linking geography and political and socio-cultural changes.
The second book, Kiowa Military Societies: Ethnohistory and Ritual examines Kiowa warrior sodalities from the late s to the present. This work addresses the origins and development of ten Kiowa organizations within the larger arena of Native American history and anthropological development, while documenting in detailed fashion the ceremonies, songs, cultural practices of these organizations, and the continued importance of military service in Kiowa and Plains Indian cultures.
Also provided are the first extensive accounts of groups such as the Kiowa Black Legs Society and the Kiowa Gourd Dance and their present day national level influences. William Meadows.
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The earliest evidence that land in North Meadow was divided into allotments comes from glebe terriers for the two parishes. The terrier for Cricklade St Sampson incorporated Lammas tithes of cattle grazed in common in accordance with the ancient custom and the glebe of for Cricklade St Mary refers to a share in Northmead of about an acre. A manorial survey made in lists 24 plots in North Meadow. The Inclosure Act affecting the district was passed in and stated quite clearly the ancient Lammas routine, instructing that North Meadow was to remain unenclosed and to retain its commonable rights.
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The act did, however introduce one very significant modification to its management; the redistribution of doles so that each owner had the same acreage of mead but in one consolidated unit rather than several small strips. In order that the plots could be demarcated without interfering with common grazing, small dole stones were put in place at intervals along the boundaries.
Some of these stones are still in position today of which a small number are inscribed with initials which allude to names registered in the inclosure Award. The sites for the plant were once relatively common but over the years various forms of land improvement such as drainage, grazing and fertilizer application have reduced the numbers to a handful, most of which are in this area of the upper Thames. The most northerly site for the Fritillary is Mottey Meadows near Stafford. The Fritillary favours meadows that are subject to winter flooding.
The plant belongs to the Liliaceae family. It arises from a small bulb and has an erect grey-green stem that can vary from mm. The flowers are usually single but doubles and very rarely three-headed forms are found. The Fritillary bulbs lie about cm below the soil surface and are dormant from late June to August. During late August some contractile roots begin to develop from the sides of the bulb.
The new shoots also begin to develop and elongate very slowly. By November it has approached the soil surface and the lower leaves, unexpanded foliage leaves and stalk or flower bud for flowering individuals , are well differentiated.
They then go through another period of dormancy during the winter months and resume growth in March. At this time the unexpanded foliage leaves and stalk begin to emerge above ground.
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The bulbs then expand rapidly and at the same time new adventitious roots develop from the base of the bulb. These seeds are thought to germinate after cold spells to form procorms in the first months of the following year. The plant does not move from seedling stage to flowering stage in sequential steps; instead it can stay at the same level of growth or move up or down depending upon resources procured during the year. Reproduction appears to be by flowering individuals only, either through the production of one or rarely two bulblets along with the new bulb, or from seed.
An old country belief of the wild fritillary was that it followed the path of the Romans, springing up wherever their footsteps had fallen.
The flower has been compared with the bell that lepers once carried to give warning of their approach. Why is North Meadow Important? The Meaning of Lammas Meadows Meadow is grassland which is mown for hay in summer to provide winter fodder.
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